GeoClub Holds Rock ‘n Bake Sale on South Patio

The annual GeoClub Rock ‘n Bake sale was held on the South Patio, Thursday Sept. 26th. Baked goods were available for purchase, as well as mineral and rock samples. The GeoClub would like to thank all of the students and faculty for their generous donations.


Earth science students Joel Laine and Chad/Randal/Philip Roberson at the Rock ‘n Bake sale table on South Patio. (Photo by P. Medlin.)

geo 115

Bryan Blackburn and Audrey Pattat take turns cutting geodes to sell at the Rock ‘n Bake sale. (Photo by P. Medlin.)

The GeoClub also extends a big THANK YOU to earth science student Chris Thurman for a generous donation of unopened geodes! You rock, Chris!

Posted in Uncategorized | Leave a comment

GeoClub Welcomes New Faculty and Staff at Annual Fall Picnic

On Thursday Sept. 12, the GeoClub officially welcomed Dr. Joseph Asante and Mrs. Peggy Medlin to the Department of Earth Sciences. Club members and officers grilled hot dogs and hamburgers on the porch of Kittrell Hall. Potato salad, baked beans, pasta salad, homemade salsa, watermelons and a selection of desserts were available for students and faculty to enjoy.


Faculty and students gather for the GeoClub’s Annual Fall Picnic


Earth science students mingle on the porch of Kittrell Hall.

Many thanks to all the students who organized this event, and welcome to our new faculty and staff.

Posted in Uncategorized | Leave a comment

Postcard from the Permian Basin, West Texas and New Mexico

DSC_0690 - Version 2

Tennessee Tech earth science students and faculty find shade under the Carlsbad Caverns National Park entrance sign. Photo courtesy of Geoff Gadd.

What did West Texas and New Mexico look like during the Permian, 260 million years ago? That’s the question six Tennessee Tech earth science students attempted to answer on a nine-day field trip, May 23-June 1, 2013. Over the course of the spring semester, GEOL 4810 students Kolbe Andrzejewski, John Baird, Geoff Gadd, Joe Kalbarczyk, Jordan Sachs, and Paul Woods became experts on Permian depositional environments. Then, they headed west to find out what’s in them there western hills?

After two days of crossing the U.S., the group arrived at the Carlsbad KOA in New Mexico just in time for a desert thunderstorm with hail and high winds. It turned out to be the only precipitation students saw until the drive back east. Temperatures in the desert hovered in the 90s during the days and cooled off into the 60s at night.

As the trip progressed, the group explored a series of depositional environments from the Permian, including: (1) carbonate back-reef, reef, and fore-reef deposits; (2) carbonate and clastic slope rocks; (3) clastic deepwater formations; and (4) evaporite deposits. The group also made stops at Carlsbad Caverns to view karst features and the Permian Basin Petroleum Museum to learn about oil/gas exploration in the prolific reservoir system.

Field Trip Map

The five day field trip explored the Guadalupean Reef system, from the back-reef deposits (Day 1, blue route and stops) to the reef, slope and deepwater deposits (Day 5, purple route and stops).

To view the complete route map with geologic stops in Google Maps, click here.

DAY 1: Back-reef deposits

Led by Kolbe Andrzejewski, the first day of field work focused on facies and deposits of a back-reef environment. Stops 1 and 2 were located approximately 12 miles landward (northwestward) of the Guadalupean fault scarp, the modern-day expression of the ancient reef front. The group began by describing dolomite wackestones exposed in a dry desert riverbed known as Rocky Arroyo. At a second stop closer to the shelf edge, prominent dolomite outcrops contained  abundant algal stromatolites but few other fossils.

Algal stromatolites in a dolomitic wackestone.

Algal stromatolites in a dolomitic wackestone. Photo by Dr. W.

Tidal Channel

TTU student Paul Woods stands in front of a dolomite-filled sedimentary body, interpreted to be a tidal channel located in the back-reef environment. Photo by John Baird.

After lunching in the shade of the van, the group drove south of Carlsbad to Dark Canyon, where the carbonate facies were strikingly different. Located approximately 1 mile from the reef front, the rocks of Stops 3 and 4 were well-bedded pisolitic dolomite grainstones.

Pisolites in a dolomitic grainstone. Photo by John Baird.

DAY 2: The Reef – Guadalupe Peak Trail

The group got an early start on June 27th, and Day 2 was spent hiking Guadalupe Peak Trail in Guadalupe Mountains National Park. Although collecting rocks in the park was prohibited, folks had an opportunity to see spectacular rhombohedral calcite crystals along the hike. At the summit and on the descent, Geoff Gadd led discussions about reef and slope facies of the Guadalupe trail and ancient carbonate system.

Guad Hike

Paul Woods and Kolbe Andrzejewski enjoy a spectacular view of reef and slope deposits across the canyon. Photo by Dr. W.


TTU student Paul Woods checks out the amazing calcite crystals along the hike. Photo by Dr. W.


Panorama from the highest point in Texas, Guadalupe Peak at 8,750 ft. Photo by Kolbe Andrzejewski.


Top of Guadalupe Peak, the highest point in Texas at 8,750 ft. Go Golden Eagles! Photo by a fellow hiker and courtesy of Geoff Gadd.

After a full day of hiking and investigating carbonate rocks, everyone was pretty hungry and ready to sample the local cuisine. Although skeptical at first, it was determined that the restaurant below did, indeed, have “The Best Mexican Food in Town”.


What do geologists eat after hiking a Permian reef and the tallest point in Texas? The “Best Mexican Food in Town”, of course! Photo by Geoff Gadd.

DAY 3: Walnut Canyon and Carlsbad Caverns

On Day 3, students enjoyed a brief respite from the desert sun. The first stop of the day was located at the mouth of Walnut Canyon, on the road leading to Carlsbad Caverns.  Here, poorly bedded lime grainstones cropped out, complete with calcite-filled veins and joint sets.


Is this a calcite-filled vein? Hmmm…
Photo by John Baird.

Also along the entrance highway, the group stopped for a glimpse of teepee structures in the carbonate beds and to admire abundant pisolite grainstones.


TTU student Paul Woods checks out a breccia in the center of a carbonate teepee structure.


Geoff Gadd patiently serves as a photo scale next to a teepee structure in the parking lot of Carlsbad Caverns. Photo by John Baird.

Folks enjoyed a quick lunch at Carlsbad Caverns prior to spending the afternoon underground. Jordan Sachs, an avid caver and TTU student, gave a thorough introduction on the local karst system and led group discussions, pointing out cave formations and features in the subsurface. A general consensus was reached that geologists love food, hence textural names for precipitating minerals like cave bacon and popcorn.


TTU students opt to take the natural entrance into the cave. Photo by Dr. W.


Cave formations of Carlsbad Caverns. Photo by Geoff Gadd.


Cave formations of Carlsbad Caverns. Photo by Geoff Gadd.

DAY 4: McKittrick Canyon and the Permian Reef Geology Trail

Over the course of the first three days, students had worked their way from the back-reef to the carbonate reef environments of the Permian. On Day 4, Joe Kalbarczyk led the group up the Permian Reef Geology Trail, located in Guadalupe Mountains National Park. One of the most spectacular geo-trails in the world (how often can you actually hike up an ancient clinoform?!), brochures and a full guidebook are available on the geology of this route.

McKittrick Geology

At trail marker #4, Joe K. points out vertical changes in facies associated with deposition in a toe-of-slope environment. Burrowed wackestones overlie thin-bedded wackestones and alternating packages of packstone and wackestone. Photo by Dr. W.


While hiking up the ancient slope, students keep a careful eye out for fossils and skeletal material in the wackestones and packestones. Photo by Dr. W. (Note to NPS: Don’t worry – – we didn’t collect rocks in the park!)


Trilobite fossil identified by Paul Woods along the Permian Reef Geology Trail. Photo by Geoff Gadd.
Edit: Thanks to Brett Woodward for suggesting it may haven been an aberrant brachiopod!


Skeletal packstone at trail marker #6; the interpreted depositional process is a slope-derived debris flow. Photo by Dr. W.


Looking back to the south from the Permian Reef Geology Trail: point bars and a modern arroyo channel are visible along the floor of McKittrick Canyon. Photo by John Baird.


TTU earth science students hike up McKittrick Canyon on the Permian Reef Geology Trail. Across the canyon, strata interpreted to be toe-of-slope, slope and reef deposits are visible. Photo by Dr. W.

At the top of the trail, students ate lunch on the nose of the ancient reef, looking southward into the basin.


Hmm… perhaps the west Texas heat is starting to get to these Tennessee geologists…? Photo by Dr. W and courtesy of Geoff Gadd.

DAY 5: Evaporites, deepwater deposits and salt flats

The last field day was spent on the south side of the Guadalupe Fault scarp, exploring different types of basin fill that accumulated in the Permian. Led by Paul Woods, the first stop of the day was in the Castile Formation, which is characterized by couplets of gypsum and organic-rich micritic mud. These evaporites mark the transition from the Middle (Guadalupean) to Late (Ochoan) Permian; they are interpreted to record increasing salinity in the basin as it filled and became more and more dessicated. To the east, the Castile serves as an effective seal rock in the Permian petroleum system.


Castile Formation couplets are characterized by highly irregular patterns of deformation, both brittle and ductile. Photo by John Baird.

At a second stop along Highway 180, boulder conglomerates outcropped approximately 7 miles from the ancient reef front. The giant clasts (some as large as a car!) contain carbonate lithofacies, which suggest they originated higher on the slope. Thus, they are interpreted to record mass transport processes, i.e. debris flows, that flowed into the basin.


Boulder conglomerate, interpreted to be a Permian debris flow sourced from the slope. Photo by Dr. W.

The afternoon stops were spent south of the Guadalupe Fault scarp and looking back towards El Capitan and Guadalupe Peak. Deepwater clastic deposits of the Bell Canyon, Cherry Canyon and Brushy Canyon units were discussed and described by John Baird. The group identified incomplete Bouma sequences containing structureless sandstone, ripples and planar laminations.


Partial Bouma sequences of deepwater deposits in the Brushy Canyon Formation. Thick beds are mostly structureless sandstone or siltstone, capped by ripple-laminated siltstones and planar laminated mudstones. Photo by Dr. W.

Salt Flat, an area along Highway 180, served as the final field stop of the trip. Here, the  group had time to observe modern evaporites, take in the West Texas vista, and contemplate the ancient Permian Basin System.


TTU student Jordan Sachs sits on a modern evaporite deposit west of the Guadalupe Mountains. In the distance, El Capitan looms large, the geologic relict of an ancient Permian reef front. Photo by Kolbe Andrzejewski.

After five days investigating sedimentary rocks – clastics, carbonates, and evaporites – Tennessee Tech students and Dr. Wolak headed home to Cookeville. In Midland, TX, the Permian Basin Petroleum Museum offered an opportunity to review the geology through the lens of oil and gas exploration.


In addition to the spectacular geology and modern depositional environments, Tennessee Tech earth science students enjoyed a few other treats, including:

1.) Graffiti at Road Side BBQ in Memphis, TN

Paul Graffiti

Paul Woods adds a TTU Earth Sciences signature to graffiti-filled walls of the Road Side BBQ in west Memphis.

2.) Tarantula-viewing at the Carlsbad KOA entrance


On the way into the field, students spot a gigantic black mass crossing the road. Photo by Dr. W.


Desert tarantula in New Mexico. Photo by Geoff Gadd.

3.) High Desert Fashion, the Tennessee Way


Kolbe Andrzejewski models appropriate ear cover in the sun-filled desert.

4.) Jumping for joy after a week in the field doing geology. Go Golden Eagles!


Tennessee Tech students and Dr. Wolak catch some air in front of El Capitan and the Guadalupe Mountains of West Texas and New Mexico. Photo by John Baird and courtesy of Geoff Gadd.

Posted in Uncategorized | Leave a comment

TTU College of Arts and Sciences Awards Ceremony

On the evening of April 22, more than 200 students, parents, family, and friends assembled in the Tech Pride Room to acknowledge many of the outstanding students in the College, including five geosciences students.  Bryan Blackburn, Heather Harris, David Hunter, and Audrey Pattat were recognized for winning department scholarships.  Chelsea Ottenfeld was given the Excellence in Liberal Arts Award–the highest recognition of student achievement in the College.  Moreover, Chelsea is the first geosciences student to win this distinguished award.  Congratulations to all the department honorees!


Dr. Harrison with Heather Harris, David Hunter, and Bryan Blackburn


Chelsea Ottenfeld accepting the Award for Excellence in Liberal Arts from Dean Semmes.

Posted in Uncategorized | Tagged | Leave a comment

Field trip to Gordonsville and Elmwood Zinc Mines


Mineralogy and petrology students in front of the #3 shaft at Gordonsville Zinc Mine

On Nov. 30th, undergraduate students in the Mineralogy and Petrology class had an incredible opportunity to study minerals in their natural habitat, the Gordonsville and Elmwood underground mines. Led by Dr. Leimer and TTU alumni Josh Gentry, nine students and new faculty member Dr. Wolak visited the facility. After a brief safety session, the group headed down below to learn about mining geology.

IMG_0191 IMG_0201

Keegan Woods, a TTU earth science major, also works as a geotechnician at the Elmwood Zinc Mine.

Keegan Woods, a current TTU Earth Science undergraduate, also accompanied the students. Both he and Josh explained geology of the connected mines as they made several stops underground. Excited (read: ecstatic!) students had an opportunity to inspect vug geometries and collect samples of the ore breccia, sphalerite, fluorite, calcite and limestone.

Vug inspection.

Vug inspection.

Following the subsurface part of the field trip, the group was led on a tour through the mill facility. From one end of the building to the other, the tour guide explained how raw ore was crushed and separated to yield both powdered lime (for agricultural use) and sphalerite (for zinc).

Dr. Leimer observes crushed ore in the mill facility.

Many thanks to Nyrstar and folks at the Gordonsville and Elmwood Zinc Mines for a safe and memorable trip underground!

Dr. Leimer and Dr. Wolak are all smiles with a new sample of calcite to display in the TTU Earth Science Department.

New calcite to be displayed in the TTU Earth Science Department. (Dr. Leimer and Dr. Wolak for scale.)

Posted in Uncategorized | Leave a comment

Girl Scouts visit the Earth Science Department for Geology Day

Saturday, Dec. 2nd, was an exciting opportunity for students in the Earth Science Department to share their knowledge with over 25 girl scouts. Accompanied by parents and troop leaders, the girls visited the department to learn more about the geosciences and to work toward badges for geology and geocacheing. Student members of the Association of Women Geologists (AWG) and TTU Geoclub organized the outreach event, which included four activities on rocks and minerals, fossils, Mars geology and geocacheing.

DSC_0749 DSC_0722 DSC_0721 DSC_0706

Girls react to learning that coprolites are fossil...poop!

Girls react to learning that coprolites are fossil…poop!

TTU undergrad Jordan Sachs helps a girl scout create fossil molds using plaster of paris.

Congrats to our girl scout geoscientists, and special thanks to local troop leader Rachel Moen and TTU undergraduate Billie Kibler for facilitating the event. Brandon Page was kind enough to take photos, and a very big ‘thank-you’ to earth science student and faculty volunteers!

Girl scouts, parents, troop leaders and TTU earth scientists at Kittrell Hall.

Girl scouts, parents, troop leaders and TTU earth scientists at Kittrell Hall.

Posted in Uncategorized | Leave a comment

Core Donation from the Army Corps of Engineers

A special thank-you to geologist Mark Elson and the Army Corps of Engineers in Nashville, TN for donating ten boxes of core to the Earth Science Department and Sedimentary Geology lab!

Four students and Dr. Wolak (who enjoys writing about herself in third person) visited the core warehouse the first week of December. After a brief introduction with Mark, the group sorted through about 30 boxes of core to select samples that could be used in sedimentary geology lab exercises. Ten boxes have a new home in Kittrell Hall and display an amazing diversity of lithologies, including conglomerates, coarse-to-fine sandstones, siltstones, mudstone, limestones (all flavors!) and even a coal bed or two.

Overturned bedding in a limestone core.

Overturned bedding in a limestone core.

Thanks also to Kolbe Andrejewski, TTU Earth Science undergraduate, for helping facilitate this transfer, and to students who helped move core: Bryan Blackburn, Geoff Gadd and Brandon Page.

Now we just have to wait until Sed/Strat next fall to describe all these cool new rocks!

Posted in Uncategorized | Leave a comment


Welcome to the Tennessee Tech Earth Sciences blog! Here you will find updates and news about the department, including field trips, ongoing research, club activities and general departmental happenings. 

To learn more about the Earth Science Department, please visit our web page

Posted in Uncategorized | Leave a comment